Delphinieae flowers originated from the rewiring of interactions between duplicated and diversified floral organ identity and symmetry genes


  作  者:Zhao HQ#, Liao H#, Li SX#, Zhang R, Dai J, Ma PR, Wang TP, Wang MM, Yuan Y, Fu XH, Cheng J, Duan XS, Xie YR, Zhang P, Kong HZ*, Shan HY*


  刊物名称:Plant Cell


  卷:35 期:3 页码:994-1012


  Species of the tribe Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae) have long been the focus of morphological, ecological, and evolutionary studies due to their highly specialized, nearly zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical) spiral flowers with nested petal and sepal spurs and reduced petals. The mechanisms underlying the development and evolution of Delphinieae flowers, however, remain unclear. Here, by conducting extensive phylogenetic, comparative transcriptomic, expression, and functional studies, we clarified the evolutionary histories, expression patterns, and functions of floral organ identity and symmetry genes in Delphinieae. We found that duplication and/or diversification of?APETALA3-3?(AP3-3),?AGAMOUS-LIKE6?(AGL6),?CYCLOIDEA?(CYC), and?DIVARICATA?(DIV) lineage genes was tightly associated with the origination of Delphinieae flowers. Specifically, an?AGL6-lineage member (such as the?Delphinium ajacis AGL6-1a) represses sepal spur formation and petal development in the lateral and ventral parts of the flower while determining petal identity redundantly with?AGL6-1b. By contrast, two?CYC2-like genes,?CYC2b?and?CYC2a, define the dorsal and lateral-ventral identities of the flower, respectively, and form complex regulatory links with?AP3-3,?AGL6-1a, and?DIV1. Therefore, duplication and diversification of floral symmetry genes, as well as co-option of the duplicated copies into the preexisting floral regulatory network, have been key for the origin of Delphinieae flowers.




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