Diploid species phylogeny and evolutionary reticulation indicate early radiation of Ephedra in the Tethys coast


  作  者:Yu Q#, Yang FS#, Chen YX, Wu H, Ickert-Bond SM*, Wang XQ*


  刊物名称:Journal of Integrative Plant Biolog


  卷: 期: 页码:DOI: 10.1111/jipb.13573


  Reconstructing a robust species phylogeny and disentangling the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the gymnosperm genus?Ephedra, which has a large genome and rich polyploids, remain a big challenge. Here we reconstructed a transcriptome-based phylogeny of 19 diploid?Ephedra?species, and explored evolutionary reticulations in this genus represented by 50 diploid and polyploid species, using four low-copy nuclear and nine plastid genes. The diploid species phylogeny indicates that the Mediterranean species diverged first, and the remaining species split into three clades, including the American species (Clade A),?E. rhytidosperma, and all other Asian species (Clade B). The single-gene trees placed?E. rhytidosperma?sister to Clade A, Clade B, or Clades A?+?B in similar proportions, suggesting that radiation and gene flow likely occurred in the early evolution of?Ephedra. In addition, reticulate evolution occurred not only among the deep nodes, but also in the recently evolved South American species, which further caused difficulty in phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we found that allopolyploid speciation was pervasive in?Ephedra. Our study also suggests that?Ephedra?very likely originated in the Tethys coast during the late Cretaceous, and the South American?Ephedra?species have a single origin by dispersal from Mexico or North America.




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