Parallel evolution of apetalous lineages within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae): outward expansion of AGAMOUS1, rather than disruption of APETALA3-3


作  者:Duan XS, Zhao CY, Jiang YC, Zhang R, Shan HY, Kong HZ*
刊物名称:Plant Journal
卷:  期:  页码:DOI: 10.1111/tpj.14985
Complete loss of petals, or becoming apetalous, has occurred independently in many flowering plant lineages. However, the mechanisms underlying the parallel evolution of naturally occurring apetalous lineages remain largely unclear. Here, by sampling representatives of all nine apetalous genera/tribes of the family Ranunculaceae and conducting detailed morphological, expression, molecular evolutionary and functional studies, we investigate the mechanisms underlying parallel petal losses. We found that while non-expression/downregulation of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 (AP3-3) is tightly associated with complete petal losses, disruptions of the AP3-3 orthologs were unlikely to be the real causes for the parallel evolution of apetalous lineages. We also found that, compared with their close petalous relatives, naturally occurring apetalous taxa usually bear slightly larger numbers of stamens, whereas the number of sepals remains largely unchanged, suggestive of petal-to-stamen rather than petal-to-sepal transformations. In addition, in the recently originated apetalous genus Enemion, the petal-to-stamen transformations have likely been caused by the mutations that led to the elevation and outward expansion of the expression of the C-function gene, AGAMOUS1 (AG1). Our results not only provide a general picture of parallel petal losses within the Ranunculaceae but also help understand the mechanisms underlying the independent originations of other apetalous lineages.



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